Thursday, February 11, 2016

A Scholar's Report

Guest blogger Patrick Callaway is a doctoral candidate at the University of Maine.  He is the recipient of a travel grant from the David Library which allowed him to make two trips to the Library to conduct research for his dissertation, "Grain, Warfare, and the Reunification of the British Atlantic Economy, 1750-1815. In this post, he tells us about the resources he used at the David Library, which may offer other researchers some clues about the treasures waiting to be mined!
During my research at the David Library, I was able to consult with many records that will be of importance to my dissertation research into the patterns of the grain trade in the late colonial and Early Republic United States.
The most important of these records that I have been able to consult at the David Library is the Colonial Office 16/1 records.  These records provide the only quantitative study of colonial trade prior to the revolution, and will form the base line “norm” for my study of post-revolutionary trade patterns.
The records of the Philadelphia Customs House will provide an interesting comparison source to the CO 16 records as the customs records also provide a quantitative assessment of the trade entering and leaving Philadelphia.  I hope that this will provide evidence to prove or disprove my hypothesis of the continuity of trade both in destination and in content of the trade.   
The Baynton and Wharton correspondence proved to be unexpectedly useful in my research.  These merchant records suggest a trade in grain between Philadelphia merchants, Canadian farmers, and the larger British Atlantic much earlier than other resources suggest.  Based on these records, I will be able to revise part of one chapter of my dissertation as well as (potentially) produce a conference paper based on the correspondence of Baynton and Wharton in Philadelphia and their correspondents in Montreal.  Their further correspondence with a series of merchants in Madeira, Lisbon, and Cadiz is also potentially significant for my research.  I am currently writing a conference paper based on my findings in this resource that will be presented at the Northeastern University graduate student conference in April.
Another unexpectedly rich source I found at the David Library is the Liverpool Papers.  The first Lord Liverpool was a member of the Board of Trade leading up to Jay’s Treaty in 1794.  The records included the minute books and notes for the Board for a three-year period which outlined not only the general sense of how British trade relations would be managed in a broad sense but also the place of the United States within the trading system.  Discussion on the import/export management of particular commodities is included within the source; this gives me an important insight into the official thinking of the British government at this critical time.  Also included in the source are a selection of papers from the second Lord Liverpool, who served as Prime Minister during the Peninsular Campaign and the War of 1812.
The Dearborn Papers provide an interesting insight into the management of the Canadian campaign in 1812 and the continuing connection between the Canadas and the United States during the war.  This source will be useful to me as I attempt to assess the nature of the War of 1812 along the northern frontier.
The War Office 60/14 files could also be an interesting resource for my research.  The WO 60 series outlines the provisions sent from Britain and Ireland to the British forces in America during the revolution, and the shortages encountered by the British Army.  This aberration to the normal trading patterns is interesting as it may be possible to use this source to analyze the importance of food commodities in trade when an extraordinary demand is created by war in the Atlantic World.
The British Colonial Office records on the correspondence between the West Indies and Jamaica and the Secretary of State were somewhat less fruitful than I hoped for my narrowly tailored topic.  Much of the correspondence focused on the Revolutionary War era and the measures taken for local defense in conjunction with the Royal Navy rather than the economic condition of the islands as they were denied access to American produce as a result of the war.  
I would like to thank Kathie Brian, and Meg for all of their help during my time at the David Library and to express my gratitude to the Library for the generous support that made my time there possible.

1 comment:

  1. The land cast of the river Jordan that was to become the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in more modern times, Air Jordan Shoes,has been inhabited since the prehistoric period. Primitive axes, knives and scrapers made from materials such as basalt, chalcedony and flint that would have been fashioned and used by the Palaeolithic people who lived here around two million years ago have been discovered during a series of excavations. Archaeological evidence suggests communities continued to live here during the Mesolithic era, or Epipaleolithic Middle Stone Age, and through to the Neolithic period of around 10000-4300bc.

    The Neolithic period is said to have been a progressive time for the region. Farming was becoming more widespread, the use of clay to produce household receptacles was being pioneered and the introduction towards the end of the era and into the Chalcolithic (4300-3300bc), Bronze Ages (3200-1200bc) and Iron Age (1200-586bc) of metal tools, such as axes, hooks and arrowheads, was emerging.

    Communities that until now had lived a more nomadic existence began to settle and live in primitive villages. Ihey cultivated the land with cereals such as barley and wheat, chickpeas and legumes (lentils, beans and peas), Cheap Jordan Shoes,aided by the use of clay pots and tools. This new sustainable food source from the land - which complemented hunting animals for their meat, fishing and living off fruit, olive and nut trees - meant that the population of the region not only became healthier but increased in number. It was largely during this era that the people began to sec the merits of keeping goats and sheep too.

    Although there are believed to be few, if any, archaeological remains from the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods in Jordan today, other than in museums, you can see the remains of Neolithic homes, thoroughfares and areas probably used to market products at Ain Ghazal, located just northwest of central Amman. Discovered in 1974, the site is believed to have been a settlement hosting several thousand people between 7250bc and 5000bc. Covering an area of around 15ha, it is considered one of the largest known archaeological sites from the period in the world. jordan releases,,Artefacts discovered here include skulls, tools and plaster statues that have been dated to around 6000bc, which arc now housed in the Jordan Archaeological Museum in Amman. The statues, particularly, arc striking and friendly looking; standing about 90cm (3ft) tall, you are immediately drawn to their eyes, which are made from shells with detailing probably applied with a black tar-like substance, rather like bitumen.